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  • J Curve, Theory of Revolution, James Davies, 1962
  • Ortega for President: The Religious Rebirth of Sandinismo in Nicaragua, Henri Gooren, European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 89, October 2010, pp. 47-63.
  • El Salvador: Contradictions of Neoliberalism and Building Sustainable Peace. Wade. International Journal of Peace Studies. 2008.
    • 1856—William Walker--the movie
    • 1930-34—U.S. “penetration”
    • 1934-1979 (roughly)—Anastasio Somoza Garcia (father), Luis Somoza Debayle (son), and Anastasio Somoza Debayle (son)
    • Carter Confronts Somoza--"Legacy of U.S. involvement"
    • July, 1979—Somoza overthrown by FSLN-led Revolution
    • 1979-85—FSLN-led junta
    • 1985-90—Daniel Ortega (FSLN)
    • 1990-97—Violeta Barrios de Chamorro—1st female head of government in Latin America—ousts FSLN as leader of United Nicaraguan Opposition (UNO)
    • 1997-2002—Enrique Aleman—elected under anti-Sandinista banner—but developed strategic alliance with Ortega & FSLN—in 2002 sentenced to 20-yr. prison term for corruption
    • 2002-06—Enrique Bolanos—former businessman and key opponent of FSLN after the Revolution
    • 2006—Daniel Ortega elected for his second term on Nov. 5, 2006 with plurality of 38%-­had run unsuccessfully in 1996 and 2001.  Re-elected 2011.
    • Elements of a successful revolution, as applied to the Nicaraguan Revolution
      • Cause (Somozas and U.S. penetration)
      • Leadership (Sandino and FSLN)
      • Organization and Mass Participation—the “people of Nicaragua” did not rise up—but it was a broad-based coalition
      • External Support
      • Catalysts
    • U.S. aid to the contras—mining of harbor—reasons for:
      • FSLN economic policy
      • FSLN “regime type”
      • National security threat
    • The Salvadoran political system has been marked by more than 50 years of military rule in association with large landowners who dominated the economy.
      • Six repetitions of the same cycle:  consolidation of power by conservatives, growing dissent and repression, coup by progressive military, re-emergence of conservatives, conservatives resumption of power.
      • Political Spectrum—FMLN  PSD “center”  PDC ARENA
      • “Civil War”—1980-92
      • Archbishop Romero killed, March 1980
      • Four U.S. nuns killed, Dec., 1980
      • Revolutionary Junta (led by Jose Napoleon Duarte-PDC)—1979-82
      • Duarte (PDC)—1984-89—defeats Roberto D’Aubisson (ARENA & death squads)
      • Alfredo Cristiani (ARENA—more moderate)—1989-94
      • Peace Accords, 1992—FMLN becomes political party
      • Armando Calderon Sol, 1994-99 (ARENA)
      • Francisco Flores, 1999-2004 (ARENA)
      • Antonio Saca, 2004-present (ARENA)—defeats FMLN candidate (Handal) by 58%-36% margin.
      • Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena elected President in 2009 presidential election as the candidate of the left-wing Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front political party.
      • Differences with Nicaragua in terms of factors for a successful revolution